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In personal computers, a motherboard is the central printed circuit board (PCB) in many modern computers and holds many of the crucial components of the system, providing connectors for other peripherals. The motherboard is sometimes alternatively known as the mainboard, system board, planar board or, on Apple computers, the logic board.[1] It is also sometimes casually shortened to mobo.

Motherboard for an Acer desktop personal computer, showing the typical components and interfaces that are found on a motherboard. This model was made by Foxconn in 2008, and follows the ATX layout (known as the “form factor“) usually employed for desktop computers. It is designed to work with AMD’s Athlon 64 processor.

A motherboard of a Vaio E series laptop (right)


[edit] History

Prior to the advent of the microprocessor, a computer was usually built in a card-cage case or mainframe with components connected by a backplane consisting of a set of slots themselves connected with wires; in very old designs the wires were discrete connections between card connector pins, but printed circuit boards soon became the standard practice. The Central Processing Unit, memory and peripherals were housed on individual printed circuit boards which plugged into the backplate. During the late 1980s and 1990s, it became economical to move an increasing number of peripheral functions onto the motherboard (see below). In the late 1980s, motherboards began to include single ICs (called Super I/O chips) capable of supporting a set of low-speed peripherals: keyboard, mouse, floppy disk drive, serial ports, and parallel ports. As of the late 1990s, many personal computer motherboards supported a full range of audio, video, storage, and networking functions without the need for any expansion cards at all; higher-end systems for 3D gaming and computer graphics typically retained only the graphics card as a separate component.

The early pioneers of motherboard manufacturing were Micronics, Mylex, AMI, DTK, Hauppauge, Orchid Technology, Elitegroup, DFI, and a number of Taiwan-based manufacturers.

The most popular computers such as the Apple II and IBM PC had published schematic diagrams and other documentation which permitted rapid reverse-engineering and third-party replacement motherboards. Usually intended for building new computers compatible with the exemplars, many motherboards offered additional performance or other features and were used to upgrade the manufacturer’s original equipment

The term mainboard is applied to devices with a single board and no additional expansions or capability. In modern terms this would include embedded systems and controlling boards in televisions, washing machines, etc. A motherboard specifically refers to a printed circuit board with expansion capability.

[edit] Overview

A motherboard, like a backplane, provides the electrical connections by which the other components of the system communicate, but unlike a backplane, it also connects the central processing unit and hosts other subsystems and devices.

A typical desktop computer has its microprocessor, main memory, and other essential components connected to the motherboard. Other components such as external storage, controllers for video display and sound, and peripheral devices may be attached to the motherboard as plug-in cards or via cables, although in modern computers it is increasingly common to integrate some of these peripherals into the motherboard itself.

An important component of a motherboard is the microprocessor’s supporting chipset, which provides the supporting interfaces between the CPU and the various buses and external components. This chipset determines, to an extent, the features and capabilities of the motherboard.

Modern motherboards include, at a minimum:

  • sockets (or slots) in which one or more microprocessors may be installed[2]
  • slots into which the system’s main memory is to be installed (typically in the form of DIMM modules containing DRAM chips)
  • a chipset which forms an interface between the CPU’s front-side bus, main memory, and peripheral buses
  • non-volatile memory chips (usually Flash ROM in modern motherboards) containing the system’s firmware or BIOS
  • a clock generator which produces the system clock signal to synchronize the various components
  • slots for expansion cards (these interface to the system via the buses supported by the chipset)
  • power connectors, which receive electrical power from the computer power supply and distribute it to the CPU, chipset, main memory, and expansion cards.[3]

The Octek Jaguar V motherboard from 1993.[4] This board has few onboard peripherals, as evidenced by the 6 slots provided for ISA cards and the lack of other built-in external interface connectors.

Additionally, nearly all motherboards include logic and connectors to support commonly used input devices, such as PS/2 connectors for a mouse and keyboard. Early personal computers such as the Apple II or IBM PC included only this minimal peripheral support on the motherboard. Occasionally video interface hardware was also integrated into the motherboard; for example, on the Apple II and rarely on IBM-compatible computers such as the IBM PC Jr. Additional peripherals such as disk controllers and serial ports were provided as expansion cards.

Given the high thermal design power of high-speed computer CPUs and components, modern motherboards nearly always include heat sinks and mounting points for fans to dissipate excess heat.

[edit] CPU sockets

Main article: CPU socket

A CPU socket or slot is an electrical component that attaches to a printed circuit board (PCB) and is designed to house a CPU (also called a microprocessor). It is a special type of integrated circuit socket designed for very high pin counts. A CPU socket provides many functions, including a physical structure to support the CPU, support for a heat sink, facilitating replacement (as well as reducing cost), and most importantly, forming an electrical interface both with the CPU and the PCB. CPU sockets on the motherboard can most often be found in most desktop and server computers (laptops typically use surface mount CPUs), particularly those based on the Intel x86 architecture. A CPU socket type and motherboard chipset must support the CPU series and speed.

[edit] Integrated peripherals

Block diagram of a modern motherboard, which supports many on-board peripheral functions as well as several expansion slots.

With the steadily declining costs and size of integrated circuits, it is now possible to include support for many peripherals on the motherboard. By combining many functions on one PCB, the physical size and total cost of the system may be reduced; highly integrated motherboards are thus especially popular in small form factor and budget computers.

For example, the ECS RS485M-M,[5] a typical modern budget motherboard for computers based on AMD processors, has on-board support for a very large range of peripherals:

Expansion cards to support all of these functions would have cost hundreds of dollars even a decade ago; however, as of April 2007[update] such highly integrated motherboards are available for as little as $30 in the US.

[edit] Peripheral card slots

A typical motherboard of 2009 will have a different number of connections depending on its standard.

A standard ATX motherboard will typically have one PCI-E 16x connection for a graphics card, two conventional PCI slots for various expansion cards, and one PCI-E 1x (which will eventually supersede PCI). A standard EATX motherboard will have one PCI-E 16x connection for a graphics card, and a varying number of PCI and PCI-E 1x slots. It can sometimes also have a PCI-E 4x slot. (This varies between brands and models.)

Some motherboards have two PCI-E 16x slots, to allow more than 2 monitors without special hardware, or use a special graphics technology called SLI (for Nvidia) and Crossfire (for ATI). These allow 2 graphics cards to be linked together, to allow better performance in intensive graphical computing tasks, such as gaming and video editing.

As of 2007, virtually all motherboards come with at least four USB ports on the rear, with at least 2 connections on the board internally for wiring additional front ports that may be built into the computer’s case. Ethernet is also included. This is a standard networking cable for connecting the computer to a network or a modem. A sound chip is always included on the motherboard, to allow sound output without the need for any extra components. This allows computers to be far more multimedia-based than before. Some motherboards contain video outputs on the back panel for integrated graphics solutions (either embedded in the motherboard, or combined with the microprocessor, such as the Intel HD Graphics). A separate card may still be used.

[edit] Temperature and reliability

Main article: Computer cooling

Motherboards are generally air cooled with heat sinks often mounted on larger chips, such as the Northbridge, in modern motherboards. Insufficient or improper cooling can cause damage to the internal components of the computer and cause it to crash. Passive cooling, or a single fan mounted on the power supply, was sufficient for many desktop computer CPUs until the late 1990s; since then, most have required CPU fans mounted on their heat sinks, due to rising clock speeds and power consumption. Most motherboards have connectors for additional case fans as well. Newer motherboards have integrated temperature sensors to detect motherboard and CPU temperatures, and controllable fan connectors which the BIOS or operating system can use to regulate fan speed. Some computers (which typically have high-performance microprocessors, large amounts of RAM, and high-performance video cards) use a water-cooling system instead of many fans.

Some small form factor computers and home theater PCs designed for quiet and energy-efficient operation boast fan-less designs. This typically requires the use of a low-power CPU, as well as careful layout of the motherboard and other components to allow for heat sink placement.

A 2003 study[6] found that some spurious computer crashes and general reliability issues, ranging from screen image distortions to I/O read/write errors, can be attributed not to software or peripheral hardware but to aging capacitors on PC motherboards. Ultimately this was shown to be the result of a faulty electrolyte formulation.[7]

A microATX motherboard with some faulty capacitors.

For more information on premature capacitor failure on PC motherboards, see capacitor plague.

Motherboards use electrolytic capacitors to filter the DC power distributed around the board. These capacitors age at a temperature-dependent rate, as their water based electrolytes slowly evaporate. This can lead to loss of capacitance and subsequent motherboard malfunctions due to voltage instabilities. While most capacitors are rated for 2000 hours of operation at 105 °C,[8] their expected design life roughly doubles for every 10 °C below this. At 45 °C a lifetime of 15 years can be expected. This appears reasonable for a computer motherboard. However, many manufacturers have delivered substandard capacitors,[9] which significantly reduce life expectancy. Inadequate case cooling and elevated temperatures easily exacerbate this problem. It is possible, but tedious and time-consuming, to find and replace failed capacitors on PC motherboards.

[edit] Form factor

Motherboards are produced in a variety of sizes and shapes called computer form factor, some of which are specific to individual computer manufacturers. However, the motherboards used in IBM-compatible systems are designed to fit various case sizes. As of 2007[update], most desktop computer motherboards use one of these[which?] standard form factors—even those found in Macintosh and Sun computers, which have not been built from commodity components. A case’s motherboard and PSU form factor must all match, though some smaller form factor motherboards of the same family will fit larger cases. For example, an ATX case will usually accommodate a microATX motherboard.

Laptop computers generally use highly integrated, miniaturized and customized motherboards. This is one of the reasons that laptop computers are difficult to upgrade and expensive to repair. Often the failure of one laptop component requires the replacement of the entire motherboard, which is usually more expensive than a desktop motherboard due to the large number of integrated components.

[edit] Bootstrapping using the BIOS

Main article: booting
Further information: BIOS

Motherboards contain some non-volatile memory to initialize the system and load an operating system from some external peripheral device. Microcomputers such as the Apple II and IBM PC used ROM chips, mounted in sockets on the motherboard. At power-up, the central processor would load its program counter with the address of the boot ROM and start executing ROM instructions. These instructions displayed system information on the screen, ran memory checks, and then loaded an operating system from an external or peripheral device (disk drive). If none was available, then the computer would perform tasks from other memory stores or display an error message, depending on the model and design of the computer and version of the BIOS.

Most modern motherboard designs use a BIOS, stored in an EEPROM chip soldered or socketed to the motherboard, to bootstrap an operating system. When power is first applied to the motherboard, the BIOS firmware tests and configures memory, circuitry, and peripherals. This Power-On Self Test (POST) may include testing some of the following things:

On recent motherboards, the BIOS may also patch the central processor microcode if the BIOS detects that the installed CPU is one in for which errata has been published. Many of the above devices can be stored with machine code instructions to load an operating system or program.

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ Paul Miller. “Apple sneaks new logic board into whining MacBook Pros” (2006). Engadget. Retrieved 2008-10-23.
  2. ^ In the case of CPUs in BGA packages, such as the VIA C3, the CPU is directly soldered to the motherboard.
  3. ^ As of 2007[update], some graphics cards (e.g. GeForce 8 and Radeon R600) require more power than the motherboard can provide, and thus dedicated connectors have been introduced to attach them directly to the power supply. (Note that most disk drives also connect to the power supply via dedicated connectors.)
  4. ^ “Golden Oldies: 1993 mainboards”. Retrieved 2007-06-27.
  5. ^ “RS485M-M (V1.0)”. Retrieved 2007-06-27.
  6. ^ c’t Magazine, vol. 21, pp. 216-221. 2003.
  7. ^ Yu-Tzu Chiu, Samuel K. Moore “Faults & Failures: Leaking Capacitors Muck up Motherboards” (2003-02-19) IEEE Spectrum accessed 2008-03-10
  8. ^ See the capacitor lifetime formula at [1].
  9. ^ Carey Holzman The healthy PC: preventive care and home remedies for your computer McGraw-Hill Professional, 2003 ISBN 0072229233 page 174

    Langkah Demi Langkah Merakit Komputer …

    Posted by kang deden pada 13 Juli, 2007

    Add Komunitas Mydeden.Kom On Facebook  at :

    Berikut ini akan dibahas mengenai bagaimana cara merakit komputer, terutama bagi mereka yang baru belajar .. dari beberapa referensi yang saya pelajari .. maka berikut ini akan dijelaskan langkah demi langkah cara merakit komputer, mudah-mudahan bermanfaat .. Red. deden

    Komponen perakit komputer tersedia di pasaran dengan beragam pilihan kualitas dan harga. Dengan merakit sendiri komputer, kita dapat menentukan jenis komponen, kemampuan serta fasilitas dari komputer sesuai kebutuhan.Tahapan dalam perakitan komputer terdiri dari:

    A. Persiapan
    B. Perakitan
    C. Pengujian
    D. Penanganan Masalah




    Persiapan yang baik akan memudahkan dalam perakitan komputer serta menghindari permasalahan yang mungkin timbul.Hal yang terkait dalam persiapan meliputi:

    1. Penentuan Konfigurasi Komputer
    2. Persiapan Kompunen dan perlengkapan
    3. Pengamanan

    Penentuan Konfigurasi Komputer

    Konfigurasi komputer berkait dengan penentuan jenis komponen dan fitur dari komputer serta bagaimana seluruh komponen dapat bekerja sebagai sebuah sistem komputer sesuai keinginan kita.Penentuan komponen dimulai dari jenis prosessor, motherboard, lalu komponen lainnya. Faktor kesesuaian atau kompatibilitas dari komponen terhadap motherboard harus diperhatikan, karena setiap jenis motherboard mendukung jenis prosessor, modul memori, port dan I/O bus yang berbeda-beda.

    Persiapan Komponen dan Perlengkapan

    Komponen komputer beserta perlengkapan untuk perakitan dipersiapkan untuk perakitan dipersiapkan lebih dulu untuk memudahkan perakitan. Perlengkapan yang disiapkan terdiri dari:

    • Komponen komputer
    • Kelengkapan komponen seperti kabel, sekerup, jumper, baut dan sebagainya
    • Buku manual dan referensi dari komponen
    • Alat bantu berupa obeng pipih dan philips

    Software sistem operasi, device driver dan program aplikasi.




    Buku manual diperlukan sebagai rujukan untuk mengatahui diagram posisi dari elemen koneksi (konektor, port dan slot) dan elemen konfigurasi (jumper dan switch) beserta cara setting jumper dan switch yang sesuai untuk komputer yang dirakit.Diskette atau CD Software diperlukan untuk menginstall Sistem Operasi, device driver dari piranti, dan program aplikasi pada komputer yang selesai dirakit.


    Tindakan pengamanan diperlukan untuk menghindari masalah seperti kerusakan komponen oleh muatan listrik statis, jatuh, panas berlebihan atau tumpahan cairan.Pencegahan kerusakan karena listrik statis dengan cara:


    • Menggunakan gelang anti statis atau menyentuh permukaan logam pada casing sebelum memegang komponen untuk membuang muatan statis.
    • Tidak menyentuh langsung komponen elektronik, konektor atau jalur rangkaian tetapi memegang pada badan logam atau plastik yang terdapat pada komponen.







    Tahapan proses pada perakitan komputer terdiri dari:

    1. Penyiapan motherboard
    2. Memasang Prosessor
    3. Memasang heatsink
    4. Memasang Modul Memori
    5. memasang Motherboard pada Casing
    6. Memasang Power Supply
    7. Memasang Kabel Motherboard dan Casing
    8. Memasang Drive
    9. Memasang card Adapter
    10. Penyelesaian Akhir

    1. Penyiapan motherboard

    Periksa buku manual motherboard untuk mengetahui posisi jumper untuk pengaturan CPU speed, speed multiplier dan tegangan masukan ke motherboard. Atur seting jumper sesuai petunjuk, kesalahan mengatur jumper tegangan dapat merusak prosessor.



    2. Memasang Prosessor

    Prosessor lebih mudah dipasang sebelum motherboard menempati casing. Cara memasang prosessor jenis socket dan slot berbeda.Jenis socket

    1. Tentukan posisi pin 1 pada prosessor dan socket prosessor di motherboard, umumnya terletak di pojok yang ditandai dengan titik, segitiga atau lekukan.
    2. Tegakkan posisi tuas pengunci socket untuk membuka.
    3. Masukkan prosessor ke socket dengan lebih dulu menyelaraskan posisi kaki-kaki prosessor dengan lubang socket. rapatkan hingga tidak terdapat celah antara prosessor dengan socket.
    4. Turunkan kembali tuas pengunci.




    Jenis Slot

    1. Pasang penyangga (bracket) pada dua ujung slot di motherboard sehingga posisi lubang pasak bertemu dengan lubang di motherboard
    2. Masukkan pasak kemudian pengunci pasak pada lubang pasak

    Selipkan card prosessor di antara kedua penahan dan tekan hingga tepat masuk ke lubang slot.











    3. Memasang Heatsink

    Fungsi heatsink adalah membuang panas yang dihasilkan oleh prosessor lewat konduksi panas dari prosessor ke heatsink.Untuk mengoptimalkan pemindahan panas maka heatsink harus dipasang rapat pada bagian atas prosessor dengan beberapa clip sebagai penahan sedangkan permukaan kontak pada heatsink dilapisi gen penghantar panas.Bila heatsink dilengkapi dengan fan maka konektor power pada fan dihubungkan ke konektor fan pada motherboard.



    4. Memasang Modul Memori

    Modul memori umumnya dipasang berurutan dari nomor socket terkecil. Urutan pemasangan dapat dilihat dari diagram motherboard.Setiap jenis modul memori yakni SIMM, DIMM dan RIMM dapat dibedakan dengan posisi lekukan pada sisi dan bawah pada modul.Cara memasang untuk tiap jenis modul memori sebagai berikut.

    Jenis SIMM

    1. Sesuaikan posisi lekukan pada modul dengan tonjolan pada slot.
    2. Masukkan modul dengan membuat sudut miring 45 derajat terhadap slot
    3. Dorong hingga modul tegak pada slot, tuas pengunci pada slot akan otomatis mengunci modul.



    Jenis DIMM dan RIMM

    Cara memasang modul DIMM dan RIMM sama dan hanya ada satu cara sehingga tidak akan terbalik karena ada dua lekukan sebagai panduan. Perbedaanya DIMM dan RIMM pada posisi lekukan

    1. Rebahkan kait pengunci pada ujung slot
    2. sesuaikan posisi lekukan pada konektor modul dengan tonjolan pada slot. lalu masukkan modul ke slot.
    3. Kait pengunci secara otomatis mengunci modul pada slot bila modul sudah tepat terpasang.





    5. Memasang Motherboard pada Casing

    Motherboard dipasang ke casing dengan sekerup dan dudukan (standoff). Cara pemasangannya sebagai berikut:

    1. Tentukan posisi lubang untuk setiap dudukan plastik dan logam. Lubang untuk dudukan logam (metal spacer) ditandai dengan cincin pada tepi lubang.
    2. Pasang dudukan logam atau plastik pada tray casing sesuai dengan posisi setiap lubang dudukan yang sesuai pada motherboard.
    3. Tempatkan motherboard pada tray casing sehinga kepala dudukan keluar dari lubang pada motherboard. Pasang sekerup pengunci pada setiap dudukan logam.
    4. Pasang bingkai port I/O (I/O sheild) pada motherboard jika ada.
    5. Pasang tray casing yang sudah terpasang motherboard pada casing dan kunci dengan sekerup.



    6. Memasang Power Supply

    Beberapa jenis casing sudah dilengkapi power supply. Bila power supply belum disertakan maka cara pemasangannya sebagai berikut:

    1. Masukkan power supply pada rak di bagian belakang casing. Pasang ke empat buah sekerup pengunci.
    2. HUbungkan konektor power dari power supply ke motherboard. Konektor power jenis ATX hanya memiliki satu cara pemasangan sehingga tidak akan terbalik. Untuk jenis non ATX dengan dua konektor yang terpisah maka kabel-kabel ground warna hitam harus ditempatkan bersisian dan dipasang pada bagian tengah dari konektor power motherboard. Hubungkan kabel daya untuk fan, jika memakai fan untuk pendingin CPU.





    7. Memasang Kabel Motherboard dan Casing

    Setelah motherboard terpasang di casing langkah selanjutnya adalah memasang kabel I/O pada motherboard dan panel dengan casing.

    1. Pasang kabel data untuk floppy drive pada konektor pengontrol floppy di motherboard
    2. Pasang kabel IDE untuk pada konektor IDE primary dan secondary pada motherboard.
    3. Untuk motherboard non ATX. Pasang kabel port serial dan pararel pada konektor di motherboard. Perhatikan posisi pin 1 untuk memasang.
    4. Pada bagian belakang casing terdapat lubang untuk memasang port tambahan jenis non slot. Buka sekerup pengunci pelat tertutup lubang port lalumasukkan port konektor yang ingin dipasang dan pasang sekerup kembali.
    5. Bila port mouse belum tersedia di belakang casing maka card konektor mouse harus dipasang lalu dihubungkan dengan konektor mouse pada motherboard.
    6. Hubungan kabel konektor dari switch di panel depan casing, LED, speaker internal dan port yang terpasang di depan casing bila ada ke motherboard. Periksa diagram motherboard untuk mencari lokasi konektor yang tepat.







    8. Memasang Drive

    Prosedur memasang drive hardisk, floppy, CD ROM, CD-RW atau DVD adalah sama sebagai berikut:

    1. Copot pelet penutup bay drive (ruang untuk drive pada casing)
    2. Masukkan drive dari depan bay dengan terlebih dahulu mengatur seting jumper (sebagai master atau slave) pada drive.
    3. Sesuaikan posisi lubang sekerup di drive dan casing lalu pasang sekerup penahan drive.
    4. Hubungkan konektor kabel IDE ke drive dan konektor di motherboard (konektor primary dipakai lebih dulu)
    5. Ulangi langkah 1 samapai 4 untuk setiap pemasangan drive.
    6. Bila kabel IDE terhubung ke du drive pastikan perbedaan seting jumper keduanya yakni drive pertama diset sebagai master dan lainnya sebagai slave.
    7. Konektor IDE secondary pada motherboard dapat dipakai untuk menghubungkan dua drive tambahan.
    8. Floppy drive dihubungkan ke konektor khusus floppy di motherboard

    Sambungkan kabel power dari catu daya ke masing-masing drive.



    9. Memasang Card Adapter

    Card adapter yang umum dipasang adalah video card, sound, network, modem dan SCSI adapter. Video card umumnya harus dipasang dan diinstall sebelum card adapter lainnya.Cara memasang adapter:

    1. Pegang card adapter pada tepi, hindari menyentuh komponen atau rangkaian elektronik. Tekan card hingga konektor tepat masuk pada slot ekspansi di motherboard
    2. Pasang sekerup penahan card ke casing
    3. Hubungkan kembali kabel internal pada card, bila ada.






    10. Penyelessaian Akhir

    1. Pasang penutup casing dengan menggeser
    2. sambungkan kabel dari catu daya ke soket dinding.
    3. Pasang konektor monitor ke port video card.
    4. Pasang konektor kabel telepon ke port modem bila ada.
    5. Hubungkan konektor kabel keyboard dan konektor mouse ke port mouse atau poert serial (tergantung jenis mouse).
    6. Hubungkan piranti eksternal lainnya seperti speaker, joystick, dan microphone bila ada ke port yang sesuai. Periksa manual dari card adapter untuk memastikan lokasi port.






    Komputer yang baru selesai dirakit dapat diuji dengan menjalankan program setup BIOS. Cara melakukan pengujian dengan program BIOS sebagai berikut:

    1. Hidupkan monitor lalu unit sistem. Perhatikan tampilan monitor dan suara dari speaker.
    2. Program FOST dari BIOS secara otomatis akan mendeteksi hardware yang terpasang dikomputer. Bila terdapat kesalahan maka tampilan monitor kosong dan speaker mengeluarkan bunyi beep secara teratur sebagai kode indikasi kesalahan. Periksa referensi kode BIOS untuk mengetahui indikasi kesalahan yang dimaksud oleh kode beep.
    3. Jika tidak terjadi kesalahan maka monitor menampilkan proses eksekusi dari program POST. ekan tombol interupsi BIOS sesuai petunjuk di layar untuk masuk ke program setup BIOS.
    4. Periksa semua hasil deteksi hardware oleh program setup BIOS. Beberapa seting mungkin harus dirubah nilainya terutama kapasitas hardisk dan boot sequence.
    5. Simpan perubahan seting dan keluar dari setup BIOS.

    Setelah keluar dari setup BIOS, komputer akan meload Sistem OPerasi dengan urutan pencarian sesuai seting boot sequence pada BIOS. Masukkan diskette atau CD Bootable yang berisi sistem operasi pada drive pencarian.

    Penanganan Masalah

    Permasalahan yang umum terjadi dalam perakitan komputer dan penanganannya antara lain:

    1. Komputer atau monitor tidak menyala, kemungkinan disebabkan oleh switch atau kabel daya belum terhubung.
    2. Card adapter yang tidak terdeteksi disebabkan oleh pemasangan card belum pas ke slot/

    LED dari hardisk, floppy atau CD menyala terus disebabkan kesalahan pemasangan kabel konektor atau ada pin yang belum pas terhubung.  Selamat Mencoba dan Semoga Bermanfaat.

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